O artigo é de autoria de Guilherme Bertoldo e Carlos H. Marchi.
The foredrag coefficient resulting from the supersonic and hypersonic flow of air over a cone was calculated numerically using a finite volume approach based on the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with constant and variable thermophysical properties. No turbulence model was considered. Simulations were carried out for a cone of fineness ratio 3 under the free-stream Mach numbers 2.73, 3.50, 4.00, 5.05 and 6.28 (the Reynolds number, based on cone length, is within 0.45 and 2.85 million). Up to six grids were employed for numerical calculations, with 60 ×60 to 1920 ×1920 volumes. The numerical error was estimated to be less than 0.01% of the numerical solution for all models. Comparisons of the numerical foredrag coefficients of the three models with the experimental data showed that the Navier–Stokes model with variable thermophysical properties agreed better with the experimental foredrag for the entire Mach number interval studied, taking into account the validation standard uncertainty.